There are two PostgreSQL FDWs (currently maintained) I know of for connecting to SQL Server from a Linux/Unix PostgreSQL box. There is the TDS Foreign Data wrapper (tds_fdw driver) which
relies on the Free TDS driver. This is a fairly light-weight FDW since it just relies on TDS which is commonly already available on Linux installs or an easy install away. Unfortunately when I tried to use it on windows (compiling my usual mingw64 way), while it compiled and installed, it crashed when I attempted to connect to my SQL Server 2008 R2 box table, so I gave up on it for the time being as a cross-platform solution. One thing I will say about it is that it accepts ad-hoc queries from what I can see, as a data source, which is pretty nice. So we may revisit it in the future to see if we can get it to work on windows.
I'm not sure if tds_fdw would support SQL Server spatial geometry columns though would be interesting to try.
The second option, which as you may have noticed, we spent much time talking about is the ogr_fdw foreign data driver. ogr_fdw utilizes UnixODBC on Linux, iODBC on MacOSX and Windows ODBC on windows for connecting to SQL Server. The ogr_fdw big downside is that it has a dependency on GDAL, which is a hefty FOSS swiss-army knife ETL tool that is a staple of all sorts of spatial folks doing both open source and proprietary development. The good thing about ogr_fdw, is that since it is a spatial driver, it knows how to translate SQL Server geometry to it's equivalent PostGIS form in addition to being able to handle most of the other not-so spatial columns.
After installing PostgreSQL 9.4 and PostGIS following An Almost Idiot's guide to installing PostgreSQL, PostGIS, and pgRouting, on my CentOS 6.7 64-bit except replacing 9.3 references with equivalent 9.4 reference, I then proceeded to install ogr_fdw. To my disappointment, there are no binaries yet for that, which is not surprising, considering there aren't generally any binaries for any OS, except the windows ones I built which I will be packaging with PostGIS 2.2 windows bundle. Getting out of my windows comfort zone, I proceeded to build those on CentOS. Mainly because I have a client on CentOS where ogr_fdw I think is a perfect fit for his workflow and wanted to see how difficult of a feat this would be. I'll go over the steps I used for building and stumbling blocks I ran into in this article with hope it will be of benefit to those who find themselves in a similar situation.
UPDATE pgdg yum now has ogr_fdw as an offering. If you are on PostgreSQL 9.4, you can now install with : yum install ogr_fdw94